Geneal NEWS

Cholera: A Vaccine-Preventable Disease Underreported and Underestimated – The Sanofi Group

Cholera is one of the most common and preventable food and waterborne diseases circulating in our environment affecting the adult population. It is fueled by the dynamics of urban lifestyle, environmental disruption, internal displacement due to insurgencies, climate changes and floods that leave us no better option.

Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacteria. Vibrio cholera. Epidemic cholera is caused by infection with the V. cholerae serogroups O1 or O139 toxin. According to CDC (2021), it is a leading cause of epidemic diarrhea throughout the developing world. In 2017, a total of 34 countries reported a cumulative total of 1,227,391 cases including 5,654 deaths (case fatality rate 0.5%) to the World Health Organization (WHO) 1. Cholera not reported, up to 2.9 million cases, suspected at an incidence of 95,000 deaths each year (https://www.cdc.gov/cholera/infection-sources.html#ref-one).

In Nigeria, cholera is an endemic and seasonal disease, occurring annually mostly during the rainy season and often in areas with poor sanitation. The Federal Ministry of Health reported 37,289 cases of infection and 1,434 deaths between January and October 2010, while a total of 22,797 cases of cholera with 728 deaths and a case fatality rate of 3.2% were recorded in 2011. Outbreaks in 2018 with Nigeria. The NCDC reported 42,466 suspected cases including 830 deaths with a fatality rate of 1.95% from 20 out of 36 countries from the beginning of 2018 to October 2018. (https://ncdc.gov.ng/diseases/ info/c) Vaccination of vulnerable groups will go a long way in reducing morbidity and mortality.

Since the beginning of 2021, 10,833 suspected cholera cases have been reported with 112 confirmed cases and 289 deaths. In the past month, an increasing number of cholera cases have been reported across the states. The most affected states are Plateau, Bauchi, Gombe, Kano, Zamfara, Bayelsa and Kaduna (NCDC, 2021)

In addition to improving sanitary conditions and providing safe drinking water, WHO reports that oral cholera vaccines have proven effective in preventing and controlling cholera outbreaks. Cholera outbreaks are caused by contamination of water sources, floods, rain, places of refuge and gatherings of people, which endanger people from all walks of life.

Who is at risk?

People who live in poor sanitation conditions and lack access to clean drinking water.

It is known that blood group O is associated with an increased susceptibility to severe cholera (severe cholera). [Ref: WHO position paper on Cholera vaccines. No. 13,2010, 85, 117-128. Available at http://www.who.int/wer/2010/wer8513.pdf].

The risk of infection is higher for travelers who travel to countries where cholera is endemic or where there is an active epidemic [Ref: Yellow book 2016. Available at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2016/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/cholera].

Travelers who follow normal tourist itineraries and who observe recommendations for safe food, water, and hygiene precautions while in cholera-reporting countries have an extremely low risk of contracting cholera.

Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or nurse about oral cholera vaccine today

********************

Sanofi Pasteur: The vaccine division of the Sanofi Group, is the world’s largest company entirely dedicated to human vaccines. Our driving goal is to protect people from infectious diseases by creating safe and effective vaccines. Across the world, we work closely with organizations to enhance the health of their employees, increase productivity and reduce operational costs due to avoidable absence from work and medical expenses.

Cholera: A Vaccine-Preventable Disease Underreported and Underestimated – The Sanofi Group

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button